Deploying WordPress over Nginx and PHP-FPM

Welcome random web traveler. As the title suggests this post will deal with plain production ready examples of Nginx configuration (plus php-fpm) for WordPress site.

Before we move to the real thing, note that this examples are tested on both Debian 7 and CentOS 7 OSs. Since I don’t want to dive into setting up this servers for WordPress, I’m just giving your refined nginx configs that may be found useful. However the steps for building up WordPress on Linux are pretty simple:

– Installing Nginx from package repository or compiling it from scratch;

– Installing php5, php-mysql, php-fpm and other php libraries if needed (like php-gd);

– Installing MySql or Maria-DB;

– And off course setting up php, nginx and mysql/mariadb.

OK lets start with the nginx server configuration.  Found in /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

user www-data;
worker_processes 4;
pid /var/run/nginx.pid;

events {
 worker_connections 768;
 # multi_accept on;
}

http {

 ##
 # Basic Settings
 ##

 sendfile on;
 tcp_nopush on;
 tcp_nodelay on;
 keepalive_timeout 65;
 types_hash_max_size 2048;
 server_tokens off;

 client_max_body_size 100m;

 client_header_buffer_size 1k;
 large_client_header_buffers 8 8k;

 # server_names_hash_bucket_size 64;
 # server_name_in_redirect off;

 include /etc/nginx/mime.types;
 default_type application/octet-stream;

 ##
 # Logging Settings
 ##

 access_log /var/log/nginx/access.log;
 error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log;

 ##
 # SSL settings
 ##
 ssl_session_cache shared:SSL:10m;
 ssl_session_timeout 10m;

 ##
 # Gzip Settings
 ##

 gzip on;
 gzip_disable "msie6";

 # gzip_vary on;
 # gzip_proxied any;
 # gzip_comp_level 6;
 # gzip_buffers 16 8k;
 # gzip_http_version 1.1;
 # gzip_types text/plain text/css application/json application/x-javascript text/xml application/xml application/xml+rss text/javascript;

 ##
 # nginx-naxsi config
 ##
 # Uncomment it if you installed nginx-naxsi
 ##

 #include /etc/nginx/naxsi_core.rules;

 ##
 # nginx-passenger config
 ##
 # Uncomment it if you installed nginx-passenger
 ##

 #passenger_root /usr;
 #passenger_ruby /usr/bin/ruby;

 ##
 # Virtual Host Configs
 ##

 include /etc/nginx/conf.d/*.conf;
 include /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/*;
}

Pretty straightforward, right?

Next the Nginx magic behind WordPress. This example assumes that we want the administration of WordPress to go through SSL (https protocol). File: example.conf

server {
 ## Your website name goes here.
 server_name example.com www.example.com;
 listen 80;
 ## Your only path reference.
 root /opt/wordpress/;
 ## This should be in your http block and if it is, it's not needed here.
 index index.php;
 # port_in_redirect on;

 access_log /var/log/nginx/example_log;
 error_log /var/log/nginx/example_err warn;

 # rewrite all 403 to 404
 error_page 403 = 404;

 location = /favicon.ico {
 log_not_found off;
 access_log off;
 }

 location = /robots.txt {
 allow all;
 log_not_found off;
 access_log off;
 }

 # deny all access to .dot files
 location ~ /\. { access_log off; log_not_found off; deny all; }

 # deny access to files starting with a $, these are usually temp files
 location ~ ~$ { access_log off; log_not_found off; deny all; }

 location / {
 # This is cool because no php is touched for static content.
 # include the "?$args" part so non-default permalinks doesn't break when using query string
 try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php?$args;
 }

 location ~ /wp-admin/admin-ajax\.php {
 try_files $uri =404;

 # With php5-fpm
 fastcgi_intercept_errors on;
 fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;

 fastcgi_index index.php;
 fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
 include fastcgi_params;

 }

 # Request to wp-login to go through HTTPS protocol
 location ~ /(wp-admin/|wp-login\.php) {
 return 301 https://$host$request_uri;
 #rewrite /wp-(admin|login) $scheme://$host$request_uri/ permanent;
 }

 location ~ \.php$ {
 try_files $uri =404;
 #NOTE: You should have "cgi.fix_pathinfo = 0;" in php.ini

 # With php5-fpm
 fastcgi_intercept_errors on;
 fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;

 fastcgi_index index.php;
 fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
 include fastcgi_params;

 }

 location ~* \.(js|css|png|jpg|jpeg|gif|ico)$ {
 expires max;
 log_not_found off;
 }

 error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;
 location = /50x.html {
 root /usr/share/nginx/www;
 }

}

server {
 listen 443 ssl;
 server_name example.com www.example.com;
 index index.php;

 root /opt/wordpress/;

 # Logs
 access_log /var/log/nginx/example_ssl_access.log;
 error_log /var/log/nginx/example_ssl_error.log info;

 ssl on;
 ssl_certificate /etc/ssl/certs/example.com.crt;
 ssl_certificate_key /etc/ssl/keys/example.com.key;

 ssl_protocols SSLv3 TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;
 ssl_ciphers ECDH+AESGCM:DH+AESGCM:ECDH+AES256:DH+AES256:ECDH+AES128:DH+AES:ECDH+3DES:DH+3DES:RSA+AES:RSA+3DES:!aNULL:!MD5:!DSS;
 ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;

 # Process requests to wp-admin/* and wp-login.php
 location ~ /wp-(admin|login|content|includes) {

 location ~ \.php$ {
 try_files $uri =404;
 #fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+\.php)(/.+)$;

 # With php5-fpm
 fastcgi_intercept_errors on;
 fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;

 fastcgi_index index.php;
 fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
 fastcgi_param HTTPS on;
 include fastcgi_params;

 }
 }

 # redirect everyone back to the non-ssl page
 location / { return 301 http://$host$request_uri; }

 location ~ !^(/wp-admin/|wp-login\.php) { return 301 http://$host$request_uri; }

 # rewrite all 403 to 404
 error_page 403 = 404;

 # deny all access to .dot files
 location ~ /\. { access_log off; log_not_found off; deny all; }

 # deny access to files starting with a $, these are usually temp files
 location ~ ~$ { access_log off; log_not_found off; deny all; }

 # keep logs clean by not logging access to favicon.
 location = /favicon.ico { access_log off; log_not_found off; }

 # keep logs clean by not logging access to robots.txt
 location = /robots.txt { access_log off; log_not_found off; }

}

FastCGI params that are defined in Nginx (/etc/nginx/fastcgi_params)


fastcgi_param QUERY_STRING $query_string;
fastcgi_param REQUEST_METHOD $request_method;
fastcgi_param CONTENT_TYPE $content_type;
fastcgi_param CONTENT_LENGTH $content_length;

fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $request_filename;
fastcgi_param SCRIPT_NAME $fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param REQUEST_URI $request_uri;
fastcgi_param DOCUMENT_URI $document_uri;
fastcgi_param DOCUMENT_ROOT $document_root;
fastcgi_param SERVER_PROTOCOL $server_protocol;

fastcgi_param GATEWAY_INTERFACE CGI/1.1;
fastcgi_param SERVER_SOFTWARE nginx/$nginx_version;

fastcgi_param REMOTE_ADDR $remote_addr;
fastcgi_param REMOTE_PORT $remote_port;
fastcgi_param SERVER_ADDR $server_addr;
fastcgi_param SERVER_PORT $server_port;
fastcgi_param SERVER_NAME $server_name;

fastcgi_param HTTPS $https;

# PHP only, required if PHP was built with --enable-force-cgi-redirect
fastcgi_param REDIRECT_STATUS 200;

You can see that 2 params are overwritten in the example.conf.

Blended with Nginx we use PHP FastCGI Process Manager or PHP-FPM. I like to start it like a daemon. For that reason we can use init script installed at /etc/init.d/php-fpm . Btw I borrowed it.


#!/bin/sh
### BEGIN INIT INFO
# Provides: php-fpm php5-fpm
# Required-Start: $remote_fs $network
# Required-Stop: $remote_fs $network
# Default-Start: 2 3 4 5
# Default-Stop: 0 1 6
# Short-Description: starts php5-fpm
# Description: Starts PHP5 FastCGI Process Manager Daemon
### END INIT INFO

# Author: Ondrej Sury <ondrej@debian.org>

PATH=/sbin:/usr/sbin:/bin:/usr/bin
DESC="PHP5 FastCGI Process Manager"
NAME=php5-fpm
DAEMON=/usr/sbin/$NAME
DAEMON_ARGS="--fpm-config /etc/php5/fpm/php-fpm.conf"
PIDFILE=/var/run/php5-fpm.pid
TIMEOUT=30
SCRIPTNAME=/etc/init.d/$NAME

# Exit if the package is not installed
[ -x "$DAEMON" ] || exit 0

# Read configuration variable file if it is present
[ -r /etc/default/$NAME ] && . /etc/default/$NAME

# Load the VERBOSE setting and other rcS variables
. /lib/init/vars.sh

# Define LSB log_* functions.
# Depend on lsb-base (>= 3.0-6) to ensure that this file is present.
. /lib/lsb/init-functions

#
# Function to check the correctness of the config file
#
do_check()
{
[ "$1" != "no" ] && $DAEMON $DAEMON_ARGS -t 2>&1 | grep -v "\[ERROR\]"
FPM_ERROR=$($DAEMON $DAEMON_ARGS -t 2>&1 | grep "\[ERROR\]")

if [ -n "${FPM_ERROR}" ]; then
echo "Please fix your configuration file..."
$DAEMON $DAEMON_ARGS -t 2>&1 | grep "\[ERROR\]"
return 1
fi
return 0
}

#
# Function that starts the daemon/service
#
do_start()
{
# Return
# 0 if daemon has been started
# 1 if daemon was already running
# 2 if daemon could not be started
start-stop-daemon --start --quiet --pidfile $PIDFILE --exec $DAEMON --test > /dev/null \
|| return 1
start-stop-daemon --start --quiet --pidfile $PIDFILE --exec $DAEMON -- \
$DAEMON_ARGS 2>/dev/null \
|| return 2
# Add code here, if necessary, that waits for the process to be ready
# to handle requests from services started subsequently which depend
# on this one. As a last resort, sleep for some time.
}

#
# Function that stops the daemon/service
#
do_stop()
{
# Return
# 0 if daemon has been stopped
# 1 if daemon was already stopped
# 2 if daemon could not be stopped
# other if a failure occurred
start-stop-daemon --stop --quiet --retry=QUIT/$TIMEOUT/TERM/5/KILL/5 --pidfile $PIDFILE --name $NAME
RETVAL="$?"
[ "$RETVAL" = 2 ] && return 2
# Wait for children to finish too if this is a daemon that forks
# and if the daemon is only ever run from this initscript.
# If the above conditions are not satisfied then add some other code
# that waits for the process to drop all resources that could be
# needed by services started subsequently. A last resort is to
# sleep for some time.
start-stop-daemon --stop --quiet --oknodo --retry=0/30/TERM/5/KILL/5 --exec $DAEMON
[ "$?" = 2 ] && return 2
# Many daemons don't delete their pidfiles when they exit.
rm -f $PIDFILE
return "$RETVAL"
}

#
# Function that sends a SIGHUP to the daemon/service
#
do_reload() {
#
# If the daemon can reload its configuration without
# restarting (for example, when it is sent a SIGHUP),
# then implement that here.
#
start-stop-daemon --stop --signal USR2 --quiet --pidfile $PIDFILE --name $NAME
return 0
}

case "$1" in
start)
[ "$VERBOSE" != no ] && log_daemon_msg "Starting $DESC" "$NAME"
do_check $VERBOSE
case "$?" in
0)
do_start
case "$?" in
0|1) [ "$VERBOSE" != no ] && log_end_msg 0 ;;
2) [ "$VERBOSE" != no ] && log_end_msg 1 ;;
esac
;;
1) [ "$VERBOSE" != no ] && log_end_msg 1 ;;
esac
;;
stop)
[ "$VERBOSE" != no ] && log_daemon_msg "Stopping $DESC" "$NAME"
do_stop
case "$?" in
0|1) [ "$VERBOSE" != no ] && log_end_msg 0 ;;
2) [ "$VERBOSE" != no ] && log_end_msg 1 ;;
esac
;;
status)
status_of_proc "$DAEMON" "$NAME" && exit 0 || exit $?
;;
check)
do_check yes
;;
reload|force-reload)
log_daemon_msg "Reloading $DESC" "$NAME"
do_reload
log_end_msg $?
;;
reopen-logs)
log_daemon_msg "Reopening $DESC logs" $NAME
if start-stop-daemon --stop --signal USR1 --oknodo --quiet \
--pidfile $PIDFILE --exec $DAEMON
then
log_end_msg 0
else
log_end_msg 1
fi
;;
restart)
log_daemon_msg "Restarting $DESC" "$NAME"
do_stop
case "$?" in
0|1)
do_start
case "$?" in
0) log_end_msg 0 ;;
1) log_end_msg 1 ;; # Old process is still running
*) log_end_msg 1 ;; # Failed to start
esac
;;
*)
# Failed to stop
log_end_msg 1
;;
esac
;;
*)
echo "Usage: $SCRIPTNAME {start|stop|status|restart|reload|force-reload}" >&2
exit 1
;;
esac

:

This script assumes that we have one main php-fpm.conf file where we define pid file, log file, pools that we will use etc. Every change we do to php configuration like max_upload_size and else can be applied by reloading of this daemon.

That’s it my dearest. Don’t forget that WordPress requires additional settings for working with SSL too. Any questions or suggestions, please write.

Hopes I saved a little precious time of yours 😉

Cool usage of TimeCategory in Groovy

Groovy, the programming language based on JVM implements a feature called Categories. It is originally borrowed from Objective-C . Simple explanation for this feature can be the ability to implement new methods in existing classes without modifying their original code which in some way is injecting new methods through a Category class. For more information official documentation can be found here .

Rather interesting for me was playing with the TimeCategory class for writing a short and easy script for fixing some datetime columns in database. This class offers a convenient way of Date and Time manipulation.

General syntax for categories is the following:

use ( Class ) {
// Some code
}

Concrete usage of TimeCategory:

use ( TimeCategory ) {
// application on numbers:
println 1.minute.from.now
println 10.hours.ago
// application on dates
def someDate = new Date()
println someDate - 3.months
}

Seems weird? From when Integer has months, minutes, hours etc. methods ? Well it still doesn’t have any of that, however those methods are dynamically added with the TimeCategory use.

If you are interested how is this possible I suggest you to go through TimeCategory API and source code if possible. Also this forum post can be useful for deeper understanding of the groovy magic.

And last but not least, an example groovy script for your pleasure.


@GrabConfig(systemClassLoader=true)
@Grab(group='mysql', module='mysql-connector-java', version='5.1.27')

import groovy.time.TimeCategory
import java.sql.Timestamp

sql = groovy.sql.Sql.newInstance(
"jdbc:mysql://hostname:3306/DB_name?autoReconnect=true",
"user",
"password",
"com.mysql.jdbc.Driver")

def rows= [:]

// Select Data
sql.eachRow("select * from Table_Name"){
def impDates = new ImportedDates() // This is some custom Class found in the same package/directory if script
impDates.dateColumn = it.dateColumn

if(impDates.dateColumn!=null){
use(TimeCategory){
impDates.dateColumn = impDates.dateColumn - 1.day // Shift dateColumn for one day backwards in time
}
}

rows.put(it.UID,impDates) // Put private key and ImportedDate object in Map

}

// Update Data
rows.each {row->
ImportedDates id = row.value
// Check if value is different from null, if it is convert it to Timestamp(we use datetime column in db) and execute update query
dateColumn  = null
if(id.dateColumn) dateColumn = new Timestamp(id.dateColumn.getTime())

// Actual update query
sql.executeUpdate('update Table_Name set dateColumn = ? ' +
'where UID like ?',
[dateColumn, row.key.toString()])

}

Cheers.

Setting up MySql server with utf-8 charset(s)

I can’t remember how many times I installed mysql server or mysql client on some Linux machines (occasionaly on Windows also) and forgot to change the charset of both client, connection, server etc.
For me being from non-latin culture and also working in such an enviroment it is always a step plus and torment while configuring the mysql servers to make them workable with utf8.
With that tought in mind, the purpose of this post is to give you fast solution on setting up utf8 or any other charset in your servers or development machines.
I also suggest making a skeleton my.cnf file and copy-pasting it on new instances of MySql.

Log in on mysql console and execute the query: mysql> show variables like ‘%char%’;

This will give you probably an output like this:

mysql> show variables like ‘%char%’;
+————————–+—————————-+
| Variable_name | Value |
+————————–+—————————-+
| character_set_client | latin1 |
| character_set_connection | latin1 |
| character_set_database | latin1 |
| character_set_filesystem | binary |
| character_set_results | latin1 |
| character_set_server | latin1 |
| character_set_system | utf8 |
| character_sets_dir | /usr/share/mysql/charsets/ |
+————————–+—————————-+
8 rows in set (0.00 sec)

(sorry for bad formatting)

Well it’s latin1 for the client, connection, current selected database, results, and whole server. Filesystem and system are fine . Let’s do the changes that are needed and set up utf-8.

Open up /etc/my.cnf or /etc/mysql/my.cnf (depending od distribution) with some editor (Vim, nano …). As we know MySql configuration is set in blocks that are categorized by function or logical part of the full system where we put different MySql parameters that are appropriate for that part of mysql. The beginning of this blocks is marked with square brackets, like [mysqld].

That are some basic stuff, the changes that are needed are following.

For the character_set_client in the block [client] we should set default-character-set=utf8 .

[client]
default-character-set=utf8

The encoding  and collation type of whole server and all new created databases will be set by the following parameters:

[mysqld]
character_set_server=utf8
collation_server=utf8_general_ci
init-connect=’SET NAMES utf8′      # A string to be executed by the server for each client that connects

(be aware of the group [mysqld])

A change is also needed in [mysql] for the mysql console client.

[mysql]

default-character-set=utf8

Remember you can always change this parameters by database scope, this is just the default behaviour of the server. You can also do system variables changes on runtime but not everything evaluates immediately. Of course the system variables have scopes of their own, some are global some or not.

See the following documentation for diving in : http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.0/en/server-system-variables.html

That are the changes we do in the default option file. Remember, the existance of this file is recommended not needed for mysql to work.

Next we should restart the server and print the char variables.

This is the output:

mysql> show variables like ‘%char%’;
+————————–+—————————-+
| Variable_name            | Value                      |
+————————–+—————————-+
| character_set_client     | utf8                       |
| character_set_connection | utf8                       |
| character_set_database   | utf8                       |
| character_set_filesystem | binary                     |
| character_set_results    | utf8                       |
| character_set_server     | utf8                       |
| character_set_system     | utf8                       |
| character_sets_dir       | /usr/share/mysql/charsets/ |
+————————–+—————————-+
8 rows in set (0.00 sec)

On Windows I use the Mysql Workbench program for managing , its operable on Linux too.

Have a nice day ! o/